If you’ve ever wondered how websites are able to be accessed through domain names like “google.com” rather than just an IP address, you have the Domain Name System (DNS) to thank. DNS is essentially the phonebook of the internet, translating human-friendly domain names into IP addresses that computers can understand.
In order to understand DNS, it’s important to know how domain names work. When you type a domain name into your browser, your computer sends a request to a DNS resolver asking for the IP address associated with that domain. The resolver then searches through a series of DNS servers, starting with the root servers, to find the IP address for the requested domain. Once the IP address is found, your computer can then connect to the server hosting the website associated with the domain.
There are several key components of the Domain Name System (DNS) . The first is the root servers, which are maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and serve as the starting point for any DNS query. There are currently 13 root servers located around the world, each with its own IP address.
The next level of Domain Name System (DNS) servers are the top-level domain (TLD) servers, which are responsible for managing the domain names associated with their TLD. For example, the .com TLD server manages all of the domain names that end in .com. There are also country-code TLD servers, which manage domain names associated with specific countries, such as .uk for the United Kingdom.
Below the TLD servers are the authoritative name servers, which are responsible for managing the DNS records for specific domain names. These servers are typically managed by the organization that owns the domain name, such as a web hosting company.
Overall, the DNS system plays a critical role in making the internet accessible and easy to use for everyone. By understanding how it works, you can better appreciate the complex infrastructure that underlies the websites and applications we use every day.